During Recruitment

Once you are ready to begin the recruitment process, the information on this page will guide you through the process of sourcing and screening applicants.

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  • Source & Screen Applicants

    The following outlines how to review and execute the resume review process and plan the interview.

    1. Hiring manager/search committee chair screens all applicants
      The search committee chair may designate the entire search committee with the screening of applicants. This should be discussed during the Before Recruitment phase when determining who will be on the panel and who will support the hiring team.

    2. Conduct résumé review & initial screening to identify Tier 1 & Tier 2 applicants
      An initial screening of applicant materials is conducted to ensure that applicants meet the minimum qualifications (level of education or job experience) specified in the posting, have submitted all required documents, and have fully completed their applications. Identify initial screening criteria to guide decision-making.

      When initially screening applicant materials and before moving forward with phone screens, check in with your Talent Acquisition Specialist (TAS) to ensure that candidates meet the minimum qualifications for the role:

      1. Did the applicant include all requested items (e.g., résumé, cover letter, professional reference list)?
      2. Did the applicant respond to supplementary questions (if applicable)?
      3. Does the candidate meet the MINIMUM required skills, experience, and education requirement?
      4. Does the applicant’s salary expectation fit into the budget and range discussed with TAS during the strategy meeting?
      5. Applicants who do not meet your initial screening should be provided to TAS prior to phone screens or interviews, and no longer considered for the next stage.
        • Tier 1: The initial candidates to be phone screened that meet the PREFERRED qualifications.
        • Tier 2: Any candidates that you would like to consider after phone screens that ONLY meet the minimum qualifications. Tier 2 candidates will serve as a supplemental pool for Tier 1 candidates that will no longer be considered after initial phone screens. Please reference candidate flags.

    3. Conduct resume review & second screening to identify highly qualified applicants
      • Identify second screening criteria to guide decision-making with finding highly qualified applicants.
      • Review applicant materials to determine if they have additional qualifications (useful to have) and the preferred qualifications indicated in the job posting. See above for Tier 1 & Tier 2 definitions.

    Consider the following questions when conducting your second screening to identify high-qualified applicants:

    1. Are the applicant’s materials clearly written and proofread? Do they articulate a clear reasoning for applying to the position and an interest in the University?
    2. If applicable, are the responses to specific questions well-articulated and well-reasoned?
    3. Does the applicant meet the preferred qualifications? Candidates who meet the preferred qualifications must also meet the minimum qualifications.
    4. Does the applicant relate their qualifications to specific aspects of the position?
    5. Does the applicant demonstrate an understanding of the position?
    6. How do the applicant’s previous positions and employers compare with the posted job? Consider workplace culture.
    7. How long did the applicant stay in each position with each employer? Was there reasonable career progression?
    8. How do you stay abreast of developments within your profession?
    9. Determine whether the resume reflects particular achievements and results or simply lists tasks and duties.
    10. Would the applicant succeed in the position?

    After the Tier 1 & Tier 2 candidates have been selected, the next step is scheduling candidates for any additional screenings.

  • Phone Screening

    A phone screening interview is a brief (30-minute) question-and-answer conversation to complement your evaluation of applicant materials and to get more information from applicants. When appropriate, the hiring manager/search committee chair (and possibly a small subset of search committee) conducts the screening to decrease the size of the applicant pool.

    Resources for phone screenings:

  • Interviewing Candidates

    The following outlines a successful interview process.

    1. Develop Interview Questions
      To aid your development of interview questions, review the job posting and compile a list of required attributes identified from the job posting. Review the Interview Guide for questions.

      Required attributes can be identified by:

      • Reviewing the job posting.
      • Taking a look at your top performers. What professional qualities do your top performers have in common? What did your top performers accomplish prior to working at your organization?
      • Reflecting on the key relationships and clients this position engages with and understanding what would be required to build and maintain strong relationships. For example, if this position works closely with strongly opinionated faculty and would also work closely with a manager with the opposite personality, adaptability would be an attribute to include on your list.

        Based on your list of attributes, construct “open-ended” questions (instead of yes or no) that elicit detailed responses and that give candidates opportunities to offer examples and/or provide insight as to how they would approach challenges that highlight each attribute. For example, if the required attribute is flexibility, the open-ended question could be the following: how would you handle making an important decision for which no policy/procedure exists?

        Review the STAR Method for more information.

        Consider competancy-based interview questions:

        A competency is a particular quality that is identified as desirable for employees to possess. During the interview and assessment processes, competencies are used as benchmarks that the interviewer can use to rate and evaluate candidates.

        For example, you may need to know about someone’s ability to deal with conflict. You will then seek evidence from the candidate by asking them about their experience of dealing with conflict and getting them to outline what happened, how they approached it, and the outcome.

        The competency-based question on conflict could be the following: Describe two situations in which you exhibited foresight to identify and diffuse conflicts before they occurred.

        • Six to ten interview questions are appropriate for a 45- to 60-minute interview.
        • All interview questions must be relevant to the performance of the applicable position.
        • Certain subjects or areas of inquiry are unlawful or inappropriate topics for interviews. Refer to the EEO Considerations below.
        • The Interview Question Preparation Guide can be used to help aid this process.
    2. Schedule Interviews
      • The hiring manager/search committee chair (or designee) leads the effort of scheduling interviews. Mention the designated support person for interview scheduling.
      • Barring emergencies, all committee members should attend all interviews. Provide a clause for interview committee members that cannot interview all of the candidates. Committee members should not weigh in on the hiring decision for the candidates that they did not interview.
      • Interviews should be scheduled at least a week in advance. Longer lead times are necessary if travel is required.
      • Be flexible when setting interview times. Some candidates may have current jobs without flexibility to attend an interview in the middle of the day. In those cases, consider early morning or late afternoon interviews.
      • Set a strict time limit for each interview session and be thoughtful about entire length of on-campus interview for each candidate. Make sure the on-campus interview is necessary.
      • Ensure that internal and external candidates go through the same process.
      • Provide the following information to candidates prior to the interview:
        • Location, time, and approximate length of interview
        • Instructions and directions for reaching the building and contacting the appropriate person on the day of the interview.
        • Names and titles of search committee members.
        • Any additional materials they are expected to bring (e.g., writing sample).
    3. Create an Interview Agenda
      Download a sample Interview Agenda here.
    4. Conduct the Interview
      Follow the established interview agenda and ensure success. A successful interview:
      • Starts and ends on time.
      • Has interviewers who are prepared and have reviewed the interview agenda, applicant materials, and interview questions.
      • Has limited stressors:
        • Interview location is comfortable and free of distractions.
        • Interviewers are relaxed and exhibit collegial behaviors towards the candidate.
        • Candidates are provided (in advance) names and titles of search committee members, informed if they are expected to bring additional materials to the interview, and provided clear and easy directions to the interview location.
      • Is conducted fairly and consistently:
        • What applies to one candidate should apply to all candidates.
        • Additional follow-up questions during the interview are okay.
        • Cover all planned questions with all candidates.
  • Identifying the Finalists

    Making the Selection Decision

    • With a goal of minimizing subjectivity, each candidate should be evaluated against the same selection criteria and factors. To assist in evaluating and comparing candidates at a glance, it may be helpful to create a grid or spreadsheet with the selection criteria and factors listed along one axis and the candidates’ names along the other. Keep in mind that some criteria and factors will be more important than others so avoid giving each element the same evaluation weight.
    • Avoid making on the spot or quick selection decisions. It is important to take the time to consider all of the factors and to deliberate the evaluation results over a day or two before proceeding with reference checks on the final candidate(s).
    • The evaluation results may also indicate a close match between more than one candidate therefore requiring a second round of interviews and/or checking references on all of the top candidates before a final selection decision is made. Alternatively, it may become obvious that none of the candidates meet the requirements and it may be necessary to re-post the job and start the recruitment process over.
    • The chair, co-chair or selected committee member should record the outcome of the interviews, summarize the evaluation results and list the rationale for the selection decision. These notes will also be included in the Justification to Hire Form for the final candidate when an offer is ready to be made.

    Checking References

    • Reference checks are a tool that can verify and validate candidate information and provide further insight into a candidate’s skills, abilities, and knowledge. To avoid hiring mistakes, selection decisions should always be corroborated by checking a candidate’s work-related/professional references.
    • A minimum of two, but ideally three references should be checked by the Hiring Manager to ensure that follow-up questions from the interview and assessment can be probed. Telephone reference checks are the most informative and valid method of obtaining reference information. Letters of reference and non-work related references should be avoided and used cautiously.
    • The candidate’s list of references must include a current supervisor and/or recent supervisor(s). If the current supervisor is not included in the list of references be sure to find out why and follow-up with suitable alternates (more than one previous supervisor, colleagues, clients, team members).
    • The final selection decision should always be confirmed through reference checks and a discussion with your Talent Acquisition Specialist.

    Justfication to Hire

    • Once the reference checks are conducted, inform your Talent Acqusition Specialist and will complete the Justification to Hire form. Once completed, send to TAS.
    • The TAS will discuss the details of the offer with you and the TAS will contact the candidate to make the offer of employment. The TAS will conduct all negotiations directly with the candidate.
    • Once the offer is accepted, the TAS will run a background check on the candidate. All candidates must have a completed background check before work can begin-this typically takes 3-14 business days.
    • When the background check clears, the TAS will set the start date, inform the hiring supervisor, complete the PAF, schedule the new employee for Orientation, and submit the PAF for Banner processing.

  • Tools & Resources
  • Equal Employment Opportunity Considerations

    Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Considerations

    Hiring stakeholders must conduct all employment interviews fairly and consistently. All interview questions must be relevant to the performance of the applicable position. Certain subjects or areas of inquiry are unlawful or inappropriate topics for interview questions. Sometimes, questions that seem innocuous could be interpreted to be discriminatory and should be avoided.

    Interview Questions that Are NOT Allowed

    Federal and local anti-discrimination laws prevent prospective employers from discriminating against job applicants and interviewees based on their membership in a group with a common characteristic, sometimes referred to as a protected class. Therefore, interview questions should never directly or indirectly reference the candidate’s protected class information. Questions related to any of these categories may be considered discriminatory and must be avoided. Protected classes are:

    • Race
    • Color
    • Religion
    • National origin
    • Sex
    • Age
    • Marital status
    • Personal appearance
    • Sexual orientation
    • Gender identity or expression
    • Family responsibilities
    • Disability
    • Matriculation
    • Genetic information

    In addition, federal and/or local laws also prohibit inquiries regarding:

    • Participation (as a complainant or witness) in a complaint or grievance
    • Filing of a worker’s compensation claim
    • Protected medical leave
    • Information about health conditions
    • Criminal record information
    • Status as unemployed
    • Anything else that is not job-related

    Examples of questions that are not allowed

    As discussed above, the interviewer should avoid all questions that can be perceived as directly or indirectly referencing a protected class. Avoid questions that resemble the ones listed below.

    • This position maintains a schedule of X. Do you have any issues working past dinner time? Would this schedule interfere with your religious commitments?
    • Can you arrange for childcare such that you are able to work on-call or overtime?
    • I see you’re fluent in a foreign language. Did you learn that at home?
    • How do you keep current in your industry since you graduated from college so long ago?
    • How old are your children?
    • I noticed you have an accent. Where are you from?
    • Is that your maiden name or married name?
    • When did you graduate?
    • How long have you been collecting unemployment?

    Interview Questions that Are Allowed

    As a general matter, interviewers can make any job-related inquiry in order to assess a candidate’s background, qualifications, credentials, or ability to perform the position. As you develop your interview materials, keep in mind that objectivity and consistency are key to a successful recruitment process. Use neutral language and ask the same questions of all interviewees to avoid any appearance of impropriety. If you find that the interviewee starts to reference a protected class, kindly redirect the conversation to the candidate’s past job performance and proposed duties.

    Examples of questions that are allowed

    • This position maintains a schedule of X. Are you able to work those hours?
    • This position requires that the incumbent maintain an on-call schedule/periodic overtime. Would that be a problem for you?
    • This position often liaises with individuals who speak [a foreign language]. Could you describe your level of comfort with that language, including your ability to read or write in that language?
    • What pronoun do you prefer we use for you?
    • Are you able to perform the essential functions of this position with or without a reasonable accommodation?
    • Do you possess the required certification or license for this position?